Transportation Alternatives

Taking care of the environment is now at the top of many people’s priority lists. It is absolutely essential that we all start to make some necessary changes in order to preserve our planet. Some people are looking at changing the type of fuel that they use. And others are changing the type of car that they choose to drive. But there are still other ways and alternatives to using gasoline. Alternative transport is available to many people. The important thing is choosing to make use of it. This does not mean giving up your car and never driving again. What it means is that we all need to do our part, even if it is just in a small way. It may seem quite obvious to some but walking is perhaps the easiest alternative to driving. It costs you nothing at all. And in fact it can be quite good for you, especially if you do not do a lot of physical activity at work all day. If you do live within walking distance to your place of work or school, consider walking. Even if you only walked one day of the week, that little bit would make a huge difference overall. Not only would you save money on gas but you would also be staying healthy and making a difference for the earth by reducing your car’s emissions. If walking is just not a possibility for you, then why not consider looking into some form of carpool? Most major cities and large towns now have some kind of carpool community. Quite often you can locate them online and find others who are traveling to the same destination or nearby. Traveling with others certainly cuts down on the amount of pollution going into the earth’s atmosphere. But it will also save you a lot when it comes to gas money. And it certainly does not hurt to meet some new people within your town or city. Many people that own cars do not consider using public transportation. It can be a great way to make a difference and go green. By taking the bus you are effectively finding a better alternative to driving. Many city buses are seeking alternative fuel sources so try to find an earth friendly bus in your neighborhood. Bring along a good book or listen to some music or even get to know those that are also taking the bus with you. There is no better time to ride a bicycle than now. Bikes are relatively inexpensive in comparison to a car. It gets you around much faster than walking and it is good for the body. Consider the alternative of riding a bicycle for transportation. You can even buy a used one from a garage sale or bike shop. The important thing is that it works. Choosing alternative transportation measures is something that we all need to take a larger role in. Saving the earth should be our main priority. Do your part and find a better way to get around without your car.

Have a Job Need Transportation ?

Have a job and need a car for transportation is a mantra of many today. Owning a vehicle is not luxury anymore. You may live out in suburbia or anther area where bus service is not practical – either by availability or scheduling. It may be your schedule to get to work, or the bus companies schedule may not be frequent enough or provide logistics to get you to work easily or on time. Worse yet many cities and municipalities in an effort to save you tax money are cutting back on vital transit services for its residents. Oh well you say – what of global warming and President Obamas’s moves to the green economy. You can bet that bet few of Obamas’s top staff and bureaucrats take the bus to the White House each and every morning and in the early afternoon after the work day ends. Yet when it comes to choosing vehicle it’s not only a question of style and looks but one of everyday practicalities and fuel economy. Sure as a young male you may have always dreamed of that high powered sleek sports car but what of bring groceries and beer home for the weekend without even considering the high cost of fuel and gasoline economy , thriftiness and your monthly cash flow and budget. Small vehicles like the Mercedes “Smart Car” may be the most economical on gas, yet what happens in a major road accident or collision in terms of personal safety and that of your family and passengers. Small may be inexpensive to buy, run and insure but too small and if you have a chance meeting with a much larger vehicle – a truck or SUV and your personal liability costs as well as hospital and medical bills may prove that choosing a small car may be poor value – and yield you poor quality of life in the end game. At the end of the day most auto purchasers seem to like run of the mill popularly sized vehicles – be they American made cars or truck, or imports. Every driver and auto owner has their own personal preferences often involving their own particular reasons and biases. However just like real estate when you purchase a vehicle think of resale. Its not only resale price involved but also demand for the automotive or transportation product at hand. A high end Porsche or BMW may fetch a good resale price and keep its value – yet in you neck of the woods there just many not be that many auto purchasers and those actively looking in the market who feel that they justify the expense of your particular vehicle. Sure you can expand you catchments area of sales with an online service such as eBay. Yet eBay involves extra costs and expertise. Many people, especially older more conservative types who while established in life having the cash to buy such a dream exotic vehicle shy away from eBay due to concerns from buyers of problems of theft, non payment, logistical issues, comebacks and a whole host of real and imagined issues. Sure they could go to an eBay broker or a person who has the expertise and positive feedback on eBay who certifies as an eBay ‘Trading Assistant”, yet in the end many wonder first if they feel comfortable in such a situation, there are extra fees involved and by the end of the sales process one wonders if it was worth all the bother. When purchasing or considering purchasing a vehicle new or used consider as well the level of service and parts for the vehicle and your specific model both costs and availability. With some vehicles you can just go to a local box store where costs while not cheap or not through the roof. With some specialty vehicles, or oddballs you can only go to the local dealer – if there is one. As well consider the cost of parts, and the difficulties involved in installation. Good old fashioned Chevies were easy to work for a mechanic or even a backyard mechanic. Not necessarily so today. Secondly while an import car or SUV may have good reliability and resale value. The considerably higher priced import car parts may be much higher in price and as well only available from the manufacturer themselves as opposed to less expensive third party parts. This may not be an issue with brand new car – which should only have routine repair and maintenance costs in the first couple of years. Yet buy a more than 3 years old used vehicle and the costs of repairs and replacement parts of many import cars can far outweigh what you thought that you were ahead in terms of reliability, repairs and maintenance costs. Lastly one vehicle which is seldom if ever a bargain in the long run are orphan or odd ball cars. These are ones that either is just being introduced by a new offshore auto maker, or the manufacture has just basically abandoned on the marketplace. Your budget may only allow you purchase of one of these vehicles – especially if you are in the new car market. Head for the hills. No one is going to want to purchase your used vehicle down the road. Parts and service are going to be hard to come by and most likely expensive in relation to most everything else. It is better to buy good used vehicle, with reliable resale value than one of these has beens or orphans that few other in the automobile purchasing market are going to want and will give you little precious cash for. In the end when considering purchasing a vehicle – first of all think of you actual needs, consider running costs and safety. Lastly always consider eventual resale value as part of the calculations and eventual decision or decisions.

Regulation Of Trans Fats

Should we regulate the amount of trans fats contained in the food we eat? A Canadian government task force on trans fats is recommending that all vegetable oils and spreadable margarines have the trans fat content limited to 2% of the total fat content and all other foods be limited to a maximum of 5% of total fat content. These new regulations would decrease the average trans fat intake by at least 55%. What are trans fats? Fatty acids in foods are made up of polyunsaturated (like safflower oil, sunflower oil and corn oil), monounsaturated (like olive oil, peanuts, and avocados), saturated (like coconut oil, palm oil, butter and cheese) and trans fats (like margarine and shortening). Saturated and trans fats are linked to coronary heart disease. The majority of trans fats are produced by the food industry when it uses a process called hydrogenation to turn liquid vegetable oils into semi-solid products. This process hardens and stabilizes the oils, enhances the flavor and extends the shelf life of food products. These trans fats also break down less easily which makes them more suitable for frying. The majority of trans fats are found in foods made with shortening, margarine or partially-hydrogenated oils and in baked goods like crackers, cookies and donuts and in fried foods like french fries and fried chicken. The trans fat content of some of these foods can be as high as 45% of the total fat in the food product. Trans fats also occur naturally at fairly low levels in ruminant-based foods like dairy products and beef and lamb. Are trans fats worse than saturated fats? There is a lot of evidence linking both trans fats and saturated fats to coronary heart disease. Trans fats appear much more dangerous because metabolic studies have shown that they increase the blood levels of our bad cholesterol (LDL) and decrease the levels of our good cholesterol (HDL). Saturated fats appear less damaging because they elevate the total cholesterol levels – both bad (LDL) and good (HDL). The Harvard School of Public Health found that removing trans fats from the industrial food supply could prevent tens of thousands of heart attacks and cardiac deaths each year in the US. The findings are published in the April 13, 2006 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. Government organizations around the world have started to act to resolve the problem. In 2002, the US National Academies of Science recommended that trans fat consumption be kept as low as possible. In 2003 the World Health Organization recommended that trans fat intake be limited to less than 1% of overall energy intake. Also in 2003, Denmark set an upper limit on industrially produced trans fats in foods, limiting them to just 2% of the total fats in foods. They excluded meat and dairy products. In 2005 Canada required mandatory labeling of trans fats in packaged foods. The US followed in 2006 with a mandatory labeling for any foods containing 0.5 grams or more of trans fats per serving. Is mandatory labeling sufficient? Shouldn’t we let informed consumers self-regulate the amount of trans fats they consume? Once the consumer understands how harmful trans fats are and that as little as 5 grams per day can lead to heart disease, then mandatory labeling will force the food industry to reduce the amounts contained in food products much faster than a bunch of government regulations, However what about restaurants and the fast food industry? Here is where the Canadian government task force recommendations are probably a good thing. Consumers do not know how much trans fats there are in french fries, deep fried chicken and baked goods. Therefore we should adopt the recommendation from the June 27th, 2006 final report of the Trans Fat Task Force that states – “For all vegetable oils and soft, spreadable (tub-type) margarines sold to consumers or for use as an ingredient in the preparation of foods on site by retailers or food service establishments, the total trans fat content be limited by regulation to 2% of total fat content.” This will allow us to eat restaurant and fast food industry foods with the knowledge that the trans fat content is limited to 2% or less. Published at:

An Overview Of Trans Fat

Do you have regular cholesterol level checks? If you do you probably have heard there is “good cholesterol” and “bad cholesterol.” Trans fat is the enemy to us all. Trans fat raises your “bad” cholesterol and lowers your “good” cholesterol. Trans fat is considered by some doctors to be the worst kind of fat of them all because of this double-barreled impact on cholesterol levels. I am a bit more interested in this issue because for the first time in all the blood levels I have ever had drawn mine showed a rise in the “bad” and a lowering in the “good.” I have such a hunger for donuts, cookies, cakes and candy; I imagine this was part of the problem. Needless to say I am finally taking a grip on this problem and have eliminated all those items. I just hope I can keep them out of my diet for good. I may nibble still a little bit on my favorite peanut butter fudge recipe. Commercial baked goods like crackers, cookies, cakes and many fried foods like doughnuts and French fries contain the “bad” trans fats. Shortenings and some margarine are also high in trans fat. It is such a shame I feel that these foods are so “bad” for us. I would be thrilled if I could have donuts for breakfast every day, a cup of coffee, then some peanut butter fudge. I suppose I could if I wanted to continue to increase my risks for stroke, heart attack and heart disease. I don’t want to. So I will at least enjoy these tasty treats only once in awhile. A high LDL cholesterol level is a major risk factor for heart disease. If the LDL levels is too high, over time, this can cause atherosclerosis, a dangerous accumulation of fatty deposits on the walls of your arteries. The deposits are called “plaques,” and they can reduce blood flow through your arteries. If the arteries that supply your heart with blood (coronary arteries) are affected, you can experience chest pain and other symptoms of coronary artery disease. I must say I have a very intelligent personal physician. If the plaques tear or rupture, a blood clot may form and block the flow of blood or break free and plug an artery downstream. If blood flow to part of your heart stops, you will have a heart attack. If blood flow to part of your brain stops, you can have a stroke. Pretty scary stuff, isn’t it? It truly is not worth eating a lot of food with trans fat. It is so important to find a personal physician you can trust and develop sort of a partnership approach to your health care. I have been with this same physician now for over 20 years and he knows me fairly well. He has known me during the healthiest times of my life, so he ought to be fairly quick in picking up on the times I may become “unhealthy.” From all I have researched so far, however, he is right on target with preventative measures. Trans fat has also been shown to have some other harmful effects. Those include: • Increases triglycerides: A high triglyceride level may contribute to hardening of the arteries or thickening of the artery walls, which increases the risk of stroke, heart attack and heart disease. • Increases Lp(a) lip oprotein: This is a type of LDL cholesterol found in varying levels in the blood and depends upon your genetic makeup. At this time researchers say it is unclear how high levels of Lp(a) – independent of other cholesterol levels – increases the risk of heart disease. More research is needed. • Causes more inflammation: Increased inflammation is a process by which your body responds to injury. It is thought that inflammation plays a key role in the formation of fatty blockages in heart blood vessels. Trans fat seems to damage the cells lining blood vessels. This can lead to inflammation. At your grocery store you can expect to see less trans fat showing up in the food on the grocery store shelves. Beware of eating out a lot. Many restaurants continue to use trans fat as part of the oil used to fry food. For example, a large serving of French fries at some restaurants can contain 5 grams or more of trans fat. Even though more and more restaurants are putting nutritional information on their menus, most are not required to list trans fat content. One change in this area, however, is in New York City. New York City recently banned trans fat from being used in restaurants, which seems to be a great step forward, we can hope other restaurants will follow suit. This was another problem of mine, eating out a lot. I don’t like to cook. I rather spend my time doing something else then run to the nearest restaurant or fast food place and pick up a bite to eat. This is exactly what has caused my blood levels to be out of normal range. I never had this before. I have been quite concerned. I was reluctant at first to take another pill, as my doctor sent me a letter and said: “Are you willing to take a pill for high triglycerides?” I wrote back and said: “No, will increase my exercise routine and adjust my eating habits, I do not want to fish around for more money to buy more pills.” You see, he knows me pretty well. He asked: “Are you willing…….” Next time I saw him, first thing, he said: “Your triglycerides are too high, much higher than we want to see them.” I felt horrible as I almost always do while waiting to see the doctor, and I said, “Well, how high were they?” He said again: “they are too high,” and handed me a piece of paper where he had written the name of a “pill” for me to get over-the-counter. It was Niacin. He said, take this two times a day for six months and we will do a repeat blood level to see if they have come down. He said, “How old are you now?” I said: “50.” He drops these little subtle hints as if to tell me, “you are not 25 anymore, right?” Regardless of age, though, now that I have learned about the danger of trans fat, they should be eliminated from any aged person’s diet as far as my opinion goes in the matter. At this time, researchers do not know exactly how much trans fat a person can consume without any negative impact on the cholesterol level. The issue is still debatable. However, they say there is no question that you should limit trans fat, according to the Food and Drug Administration and the American Heart Association. The Niacin was not expensive at all. The reason food nutrition labels in the United States do not list a Percent Daily Value for trans fat is because it is unknown what an appropriate level of trans fat is, other than it should be low. The AHA recommends no more than 1 percent of your total daily calories be trans fat. For example, if you consume 2,000 calories a day, the total of trans fat you can consumer is about 2 grams or less. On the other hand don’t think a trans fat-free food is automatically good for you. Food manufacturers are substituting other ingredients for trans fat. Some of these ingredients like tropical oils, coconut, palm kernel and palm oils contain a lot of saturated fat. Saturated fat raises your LDL cholesterol. A healthy diety includes some fat, but to limit that fat. For a healthy heart diet try using olive, peanut and canola oils. Eat nuts, fish and other foods containing unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. Fish oil supplement is also another heart healthy additive to your daily diet. Source: The Mayo Clinic, and Trilogy Online. Disclaimer: This article is not meant to diagnose, treat or cure any kind of a health problem. All health problems should be addressed by a Health Care Professional of your choice. This article is for information. Published at:

Trans Fat – – What’s That?

What if you suddenly discovered that a dangerous, life-threatening substance had made its way into nearly half the foods in your supermarket? It’s not grocery terrorism or product tampering. It’s trans fat, and the FDA estimates that 2,500 to 5,600 deaths per year could be prevented if consumers were more informed about it. But trans fat is also a critical tool for commercial food producers, from grocery chains to restaurants. It’s cheap and easy to make, easy to use, easy to store, and it extends foods’ shelf life significantly, so food manufacturers lobbied long and hard to prevent any regulation of it, including putting it on Nutrition Facts labels. The trouble is, of all the fats, consumers most need to know the facts about trans fats, because quite simply, they are the most damaging and dangerous to health. The Institute of Medicine in 2001 issued an unequivocal statement that trans fats “should not be eaten at all.” Bad News, Good News Advice like that from the government’s key health advisor is hard to ignore, and finally, in July of 2003, the federal government took action, passing new rules requiring food producers to start including trans fats on Nutrition Facts labels by 2006, listing them separately from other fat content so consumers can see how much trouble they’re bargaining for. If you’re like most Americans, you’ve been cutting back on dietary fat over the last 20 years or so, so you may wonder what the big deal is with trans fats. The long-time rascal of dietary fat has been saturated fat, which is mainly found in animal products like meat, butter and cheeses, and vegetable oils like coconut and palm oils. They’re considered the “bad fats” because they can raise your LDL cholesterol level, which increases your risk for coronary artery disease. But they’ve got nothing on trans fats. Also referred to as “trans fatty acids,” trans fats occur naturally only in tiny amounts. Most of us are getting trans fats made artificially, through the commercial process of hydrogenation, and we’re consuming them in mass quantities. Adding hydrogen to unsaturated vegetable oils will make them solid at room temperature. Think of that gleaming white goop that comes in a can. This is also how margarine is made from liquid vegetable oils. Though unsaturated fats are generally less harmful—though not less fattening—than saturated fats, the process of hydrogenation alters them at the molecular level and turns them into trans fats, making them assume many of the characteristics of saturated fats. Like saturated fats, these trans fats in commercial food products will offer the benefit of a longer shelf life. But they also come with the downside, because like saturated fats, trans fats raise the “bad” LDL cholesterol that accumulates in arteries. The FDA estimated that informing consumers about trans fat content on food labels could prevent 7,600 to 17,000 cases of coronary heart disease each year, to say nothing of all those deaths. The new Nutrition Facts labels will not have to indicate any daily value percentage for trans fats, but a footnote will be included saying that the intake of trans fats should be “as low as possible.” So until those rules come into effect, there are some ways to tell if the products you are consuming contain the nepharious trans fats. Know Thy Enemy Like tobacco, a little bit of trans fat once or twice probably wouldn’t harm you. It’s the cumulative effect over time that does the damage. And want to talk accumulation? Trans fats appear in more than 40 percent of standard grocery items! Just knowing the usual suspects is a good start in protecting yourself. Many processed foods contain trans fats. Foods like french fries, fried chicken, fish sticks or virtually any batter-dipped and fried foods will contain trans fats because they are fried in hydrogenated fat. Trans fats are also found in almost all margarines. They’re also in most pastries and doughnuts. Chips, cookies and microwave popcorn are about the biggest carriers of trans fats. In fact, most commercial snack foods are guaranteed to be trans fat carriers. It just makes sense, doesn’t it? Food producers are looking to get that longer shelf life and satsify customers’ flavor expectations by keeping their products fresher longer. But next time you’re savoring a Danish, just keep that glob of lardy white goop in mind. Because while trans fats can mean munching pleasure for your mouth, they’ll cause nothing but problems for your heart. Through Thick & Thin: As dangerous as they are, trans fats are not listed on food labels as such. So to tell if a product has trans fat in it, look for the words “hydrogenated” or “partially hydrogenated” on the ingredient list. The higher in the ingredient list that hydrogenated oils are listed, the more trans fats there are in the product. Published at:

Healthy Trans Fats Vs. Unhealthy Trans Fats Revealed

I’m going to talk about something today that most of you have probably never heard…that there is a distinction between good trans fats and bad trans fats. There is some evidence that the good trans can help you with fat loss, muscle building, and even cancer prevention, while the bad trans fats have been shown to cause heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and the general blubbering of your body. I’m sure most of you have heard all of the ruckus in the news over the last few years about just how bad man-made trans fats are for your health. If you’ve been a reader of my newsletter and my “Truth about Six Pack Abs” e-book program, then you definitely know my opinion that these substances are some of the most evil food additives of all and are found in the vast majority of all processed foods and fast foods on the market today. In my opinion, man-made trans fats are right up there with smoking in terms of their degree of danger to your health. After all, they are one of THE MAIN factors for the explosion of heart disease since approximately the 1950’s. As you may have heard recently, the FDA has mandated that food manufacturers include the grams of trans fat on all nutrition labels starting back at the beginning of this year. This means that as inventory is replaced in the grocery stores, you should start to see grams of trans listed on all packages from now on, providing you with an easier way to avoid them. With all of the talk about trans fats in the news these days, I wanted to clarify some things, particularly regarding bad trans fats vs. good trans fats. If you’ve never heard of good trans fats before, let me explain in a bit. The Bad Trans Fats First, the bad trans fats I’m referring to are the man-made kind. These are represented by any artificially hydrogenated oils. The main culprits are margarine, shortening, and partially hydrogenated oils that are in most processed foods, junk foods, and deep fried foods. These hydrogenated oils are highly processed using harsh chemical solvents like hexane (a component of gasoline), high heat, pressure, have a metal catalyst added, and are then deodorized and bleached. A small % of the solvent is allowed to remain in the finished oil. This has now become more of an industrial oil rather than a food oil, but somehow the FDA still allows the food manufacturers to put this crap in our food at huge quantities, even with the well documented health dangers. These hydrogenated oils cause inflammation inside of your body, which signals the deposition of cholesterol as a healing agent on artery walls. Hence, hydrogenated oil = inflammation = clogged arteries. You can see why heart disease has exploded since this crap has been loaded into our food supply over the last 5 to 6 decades. As time goes on, and science continues to unveil how deadly these oils really are, I feel that eventually they will be illegal and banned from use. The labeling laws were just the first step. In fact, certain countries around the world have already banned the use of hydrogenated oils in food manufacturing or at least set dates to phase them out for good. However, keep in mind that as companies are starting to phase out the use of hydrogenated oils in processed foods, they are replacing them, in most instances, with highly refined polyunsaturated oils. These are still heavily processed oils using high heat, solvents, deodorizers, and bleaching agents. Even refined oils are known to produce inflammation in your body…a far cry from natural sources of healthy fats. Once again, for the best results, your best bet is avoiding highly processed foods altogether and choose whole, natural, minimally processed foods. Your body will thank you! The Good Trans Fats Ok, after having trash talked the man-made trans fats, let me clearly state that there IS such a thing as healthy natural trans fats. Natural trans fats are created in the stomachs of ruminant animals like cattle, sheep, goats, etc. and make their way into the fat stores of the animals. Therefore, the milk fat and the fat within the meat of these animals can provide natural healthy trans fats. Natural trans fats in your diet have been thought to have some potential benefit to aid in both muscle building and fat loss efforts. However, keep in mind that the quantity of healthy trans fats in the meat and dairy of ruminant animals is greatly reduced by mass-production methods of farming and their grain and soy heavy diets. Meat and dairy from grass-fed, free-range animals always have much higher quantities of these beneficial fats. One such natural trans fat that you may have heard of is called conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and has been marketed by many weight loss companies. Keep in mind that these man-made CLA pills you see in the stores may not be the best way to get CLA in your diet. They are artificially made from plant oils, instead of the natural process that happens in ruminant animals. Once again, man-made just doesn’t compare to the benefits of natural sources. Now that all of your labels should be listing grams of trans fat, keep in mind that if a quantity of trans fat is listed on a meat or dairy product, it is most likely the natural good trans fats that we’ve discussed here. Otherwise, if the quantity of trans is listed on any processed foods, it is most likely the dangerous unhealthy crap from artificially hydrogenated oils, so stay away! I hope you’ve enjoyed this interesting look at good trans fat vs. bad trans fat and use the info to arm yourself with more healthful food choices for a better body. Published at:

Know everything about the bus transport service from Singapore to Malaysia: Part I

Bus is the main public transportation system which connects Singapore and Malaysia. It is easy accessible, comfortable and quite affordable to many visitors. To keep these benefits in mind, the government of Singapore has arranged many such transit facilities.

Lots of travelers visit Singapore to Malaysia daily. Most of them prefer public transports than the private taxi hire service. But why? Buses are available almost every time and in a regular basis and you can book it standing in the queue of the counter outside the terminals or can book it online by going to the public transport website of Singapore. They provide enough room for the passengers along with their luggage and you can enjoy the ride with your family. These buses are air-conditioned and are packed with all modern facilities. These bus services are quite reliable than the private cabs as many groups ride it together. They are quick and punctual and offer a point-to-point shuttle and pick and drop facility and the baggage transport is free too.

This reliable and safe bus transportation service from Singapore to Malaysia are provided by two main transit supplier companies, the SBS Transit limited which has more than 300 services and 3,000 buses and the SMRT Buses or the Trans Island Bus Services, which has more than 100 routes and 1,200 buses. Both the commuters have both single and double decker vehicles. Both the transit companies acquire various models of buses, some of them are quite luxurious. They also offer night services and both the long-route and short-route facilities.

There are some of the bus routes that link Singapore and Malaysia. They are,


The bus commuting through this route stops at several stands and runs on expressways for a faster service between numerous cities.

NightRider and Nite Owl

They run at night on Fridays, Saturdays and eve of Public Holidays, when other bus transports don’t travel.

Fast Forward

It is the route which offer a faster transport and stops at fewer stoppages.


This route runs from the major parks of the city to the nearest bus stoppage.


This bus route charges a flat fare.

Cross Border Services

This route crosses the causeway into Malaysia.
Bus transports commuting from Singapore to Malaysia, generally runs to the Kuala Lampur Sentral or to Kuala Lumpur International Airport from where you have to take the train. To hire a bus commuter from Singapore, you have to reach the large shopping compound known as the Golden Mile Complex. Many bus agencies have their ticket counters there. Some of the deluxe bus services also provide online bookings. Some of the famous Singapore to KL transports are Singapore to KL Bus Tour, Bus Coach Singapore, Singapore Tour Packages and so on.

Bus Transport: An integral Contribution in the Economy

Bus transport is an integral part contributing to the economy. Ever since 1991 when the economic liberalization takes place by the Government of India, infrastructure development has progressed at a rapid pace, and coming to today it has matured to a wide variety of options owning to the better Intrastate roads & National Highways . However, GDP of India which is relatively low has meant that the uniformity has not been maintained in accessing this transport form. However, bus transport still remains the primary mode of transport for most of the population, and India’s public & private bus transport systems are among the most heavily utilized in the world.

Despite improvements which are ongoing in the sector, the transport sector are still riddled with problems due to lack of investment, outdated infrastructure, lack of new routes ,corruption and a burgeoning population which increasing day by day putting pressure on already compressed Bus services . The demand for transport infrastructure and services which has been rising by 10% a year would have to cope up, as the current infrastructure being unable to meet these growing demands. According to Goldman Sachs, India will need to spend USD2.7 Trillion on infrastructure & Roads projects over the 2010-20 to boost economic growth like in case of China which has allocated USD11Trillion for the improvement & upgradation of its existing transport structure. The marvels like Trans Karakorum highway is the example of the same.

Buses serve as convenient & cheap mode of transport for all class of society. In India Buses make over 90% of the entire public transport for all Indian cities. In today’s scenario mostly bus services are run by the State Government owned transport Corporations, but as the penetration & acceptability increasing nowadays private players are also providing the bus tickets of interstate routes most notably Redbus,ticketvala,Ticketgoose to name the few.

With the entry of the private players the whole transport system is going the rapid change from the old buses that are previously used in early 2000 to the newer buses like Volvo, luxury, semi sleeper & sleeper buses which in turn increase the convenience of the travelers .Also facilities like meals on board & AC are provided now days for the travelers on long interstate routes.

New initiatives like Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems in cities have been taken by the various state government to improve the bus public transport systems in cities Notably Delhi, Pune & Ahmadabad with new ones coming up in Visakhapatnam’s and Hyderabad. Cities like Mumbai, Bangalore, Nagpur and Chennai have High Capacity buses nowadays. The Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus houses Asia’s largest bus terminus.

The India busiest routes in Bus transport are Mumbai-Pune, Chennai-Bangalore, Chennai –Hyderabad & Bangalore-Tirupati as approximately 40% of the traffic of Buses is catered in these routes.

How FAT Can Make You Cleverer, Healthier and Slimmer

Did you know that 60% of your brain is fat?


– Source of energy
– Building blocks for cell membranes
– Building blocks for homones
– Help vitamin and mineral bsorption
– Control blood pressure
– Regulate body temperature
– Boost immune system
– Optimum brain development & performance


– Monounsaturated fats:

Nuts (not peanuts!) pecans, almonds, seeds, avocado, virgin olive oil,

– Polyunsaturated fats (omega-6 & omega-3):

walnuts, hazelnuts, salmon, trout, tuna, mackerel, sunflower seeds, flaxeed, kiwis

– Saturated fats:

Dairy*, poultry, meats, coconut oil, palm oil, butter

– Trans-fats (hydrogenated fats):

Fried foods, commercially baked foods, processed foods, take aways, margarine

Your brain needs fat for optimum function. Not just any fat, though. Some fats will make you cleverer, healthier and slimmer, while other fats will make you dumb, fat and can even kill you.


A study published in the journal Diabetes Care in July 2007 found that diets rich in monounsaturated fats prevented the accumulation of belly fat, without even any additional exercise! Rich sources of monounsaturated fats are raw nuts such as almonds, avocado, virgin olive oil.


Your brain cells crave omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. We typically get enough omega-6 acids, but most people need to consume more omega-3 fatty acids. The body cannot make these fats on its own so omega-3s must be obtained from food. These strengthen the brain’s synapses, which provide the pathways for neural communication. They also help molecules on the synapses directly related to learning and memory.

Omega-3 fatty acids are found in raw nuts, such as pecans, walnuts and hazelnuts, flaxseed, dark green leafy vegetables, kiwi and most importantly, fish. The consequences of a deficiency in humans include brain disorders such as dyslexia and schizophrenia. Physiologists have speculated that fish consumption by early man is what spurred the human brain to get so big in the first place!

The positive effects of Omega-3 consumption include anti inflammatory and anti blood clotting actions, lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and reducing blood pressure. These also reduce the risks and symptoms for other disorders including diabetes, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, some cancers, and mental decline.

Keeping your brain running smoothly by fuelling it with the right energy is one step to increasing your smarts


Saturated fat is naturally occurring fat found predominantly in animal products such as meats and dairy products, and have been associated with harmful cholesterol. Palm oil and coconut oil are high in saturated fats and are really good for you!

Coconut oil has antiviral, antifungal, antibiotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. It also boosts the immune system, increases metabolism, provides rapid energy, and helps normalise cholesterol levels.

A false myth is the belief that saturated fat increases your risk of heart attack. The truth is, saturated fat from animal and vegetable sources provides a concentrated source of energy in your diet, and they provide the building blocks for cell membranes and a variety of hormones and hormone like substances.

New research shows there is no clear link between people’s intake of saturated fat and their risk of developing heart disease or stroke

Take a steak and a piece of cake. Which one do you think is going to make you fat? Which one do you think is going to negatively affect your health?

When you eat saturated fat with your meals, it slows down absorption so that you can go longer without feeling hungry. It also acts as carrier for important fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Fat is also needed for the conversion of carotene to vitamin A, for mineral absorption, and for a host of other biological processes.

As we get older we often consume more fat than we burn, and we get fat. When we are overweight, getting into last year’s jeans should be the least of our worries! Excess fat contributes to coronary heart disease, which can result in heart attack or stroke. Storing too much fat also increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes, gallbladder disease and even cancer.


Trans- fatty acids such as those found in fast food and junk food, can decrease cognitive ability, increase the risk of diabetes, and cancer. Trans-fats are manufactured fats created during a process called hydrogenation, which is aimed at stabilizing polyunsaturated oils to prevent them from becoming rancid and to keep them solid at room temperature. They are particularly dangerous for the heart and pose a risk for certain cancers. These fats, sometimes called hydrogenated fats are used in margarine, fast foods, commercial baked goods (donuts, cookies, candy bars, crackers, pizza dough…), processed foods, and fried foods.

Trans-fats raise cholesterol (low density lipoproteins) to harmful levels, to the point where your arteries get hardened and clogged. That type of fat builds up as plaque on the inside of your artery, and it’s not very stable. One day, a little piece of that plaque breaks off, your body tries to clot up the nick in the artery, and you have successfully produced a heart attack!

The US Food and Drug Administration recommend that you eat less than 2 grams of trans fats per day. To put things into perspective, one donut can have as much as 5 grams of trans fat!

If the ingredients of the foods you buy contain shortening, partially hydrogenated oil or partially hydrogenated soybean oil, put them back on the shelf!

If you really want to improve your mental and physical health, it’s vital you start to scan the labels of the foods you purchase. As you scan the ingredients and dietary information you might realise that some of the products you thought were harmless are actually not.

We’re all going to die sometime. We could get hit by a bus tomorrow or be shot by a lunatic. I hear this excuse all the time. Life is for living indeed. But, what is the point living it in a hospital bed? What is the point in popping pills full of chemicals every day to treat body and mind ailments we can easily prevent? What is the point in spending your hard earned money on diet pills, or slimming treatments when all you have to do is eat right? What is the point in getting through life feeling tired, confused or depressed when you can be full of energy and zest for life, and live your life to the fullest?

Fat can be the difference between you leading a mediocre life or a great life!

Coping skills and strategies of transgender youth in chennai city, tamil nadu


God has created human beings as equal without any discrimination as to their skill power, will power, grasping power, intellect, etc., but is the human beings who discriminates and misuses the abuse human being and treat them as objects and the fault lies only on the selfish nature of the human beings.

Usually, if they are male, they don’t think about it much. It feels normal. And, for most girls, it feels very natural to be female. But that’s not true for everyone. Transgender people who were born male feel they should be female, and transgender people who were born female feel they should be male. People who are transgender feel like they are living inside a body that’s all wrong for them. They often say they feel “trapped in someone else’s body.” Most people’s gender identity matches their anatomy. But people who are transgender feel different from their physical appearances.

Transgender people are individuals whose gender expression and/or gender identity differs from conventional expectations based on the biological sex they were born into. The word transgender is an umbrella term which is used to describe a wide range of identities and experiences, including: female-to-male and male-to-female sex reassigned persons, but also cross-dressers, drag queens, drag kings, gender queers, and many more.

Most transgender people, especially youth, face great challenges in coming to terms with one’s own gender identity and/or gender expression which are opposite to that of the gender identity and gender role imposed on them on the basis of their biological sex. They face several issues such as: shame, fear, and internalized transphobia; disclosure and coming out; adjusting, adapting, or not adapting to social pressure to conform; fear of relationships or loss of relationships; and self-imposed limitations on expression or aspirations.


The term ‘transgender’ has been derived from the Latin word ‘trans’ and the English word ‘gender’. Different sorts of individuals come under this category. No particular form of sexual orientation is meant through the term transgender. The way they behave and act differs from the ‘normative’ gender role of men and women. Leading a life as a transgender is far from easy because such people can be neither categorized as male nor female and this deviation is “unacceptable” to society’s vast majority. Trying to take out a dignified living is even worse.

Transgenders in India

Hijras in India have a very rich religious-cultural historical background. In India,they were treated as demi-gods. People believe that hijras have blessing and cursing power and hence give respect to them. People are also hijraphobic because of the belief that they might get cursed if they don’t give money to hijras. In Tamil Nadu hijras are known as Aravani. The meaning of the term “Aravani” means a person who worships Lord Aravan. The story of Lord Aravan is mentioned in the great epic Mahabharatha. There is not much difference between hijra and aravani people. The only visible difference that can be observed is the cultural difference. Hijra

group is a closed community and the main professions are begging, dancing and prostitution. Aravani people are also engaged in similar profession but they lead more individual and independent life.

The other categories that do not identify themselves as hijra or aravani fall under the transgender umbrella. For example: transsexuals, transvestite, drag queen, transgendered people etc. fall under the transgender umbrella.Recently, a private member’s Bill protected and providing rights for transgender was passed by the Raja Sabha on April 2014. The Bill also guarantees reservation in education and job, financial aid and social inclusion this is the first time in 45 years that a private member’s Bill has been passed by the Raja Sabha. The Right Transgender Persons Bill 2014 provides for creation of welfare boards at the Centre and state level for the community. Transgender Rights Courts, two percent reservation in government jobs and prohibits discrimination in employment. It also makes provisions for pensions and unemployment allowances for members of the community.

Transgender in Tamil Nadu

Transgender people are called as Thirunar, Thirunangai for Male to Female Transgender people and Thirunambi for Female to Male Transgender people. The term Aravaani in Tamil was widely popularized before 1990’s which is a substitute term for Hijra in India and visible male to female transgenders i.e. thirunangai are often discriminated against in jobs forcing them to resort to begging and prostitution.

Thirunangai’s (MTF) meet in Koovagam, a village in the Ulundurpet taluk in Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu in the Tamil month of Chitrai (April/May) for an annual festival, which takes place for fifteen days. They also meet in Coimbatore singanallur Koothandavar temple and Madurai reserve line Maariyamman Temple festival where they offer Mullapaari (sacred millets and grains) to mother goddess. Tamil Nadu has an estimated population of more than 30,000 transgender people. It has made great strides in trying to integrate transgender people into society.

Problem faced by transgender in Tamil Nadu

Discrimination – Transgender are discriminated in the society in all lifestyles. In public places like bus stations, railways stations, theatres, temples, schools,colleges, universities, corporate offices, malls, beaches and even in public toilets,transgender are offended or abused.

• Employment – Due to poverty, discrimination, and lack of skills, many transgender have no choice of livelihood. They engage in sex work and begging.Even if an organization employs them, they were offered only very low income jobs. Some transgender accept it, but their economic needs pressurize them to leave these jobs and once again engage in begging and sex work.

• Education – 90% of transgender do not complete even their secondary school education. Their academic knowledge is poor. Because of this reason, they are offered only very low income jobs.

• Homelessness – Homelessness is one of the major problems of transsexual people. When a transgender person ‘comes out’ to his or her parents, almost always, they were pushed out of their homes. Sometimes, unable to bear the violence and abuse from the family, they run away from home in search of people like them. If they were accepted by other Thirunangai family, they were lucky and can be a part of the family and live in their homes. Otherwise, they have to find a rented house. The public do not give their rented homes to transsexual people.Because of the fear, hatred and misconceptions about the lifestyle of transsexual people, almost 95% (Irom Gunachandra Singh, 2011) of the house owners turn down transgender people. There are some people who give their houses for rent to transsexual people. They charge enormous advance money and monthly rent which the transsexual person cannot afford to pay. In places like Chennai, almost all the transsexual women live in the slums. Transsexual women were poor and

marginalized and they were accepted in slums as people who struggle for living, understand and accept transgender than anybody else.

• HIV Care & Hygiene – In many private health care clinics and in government clinics, the discrimination still exists in treating a transgender patient. A transsexual woman may not be addressed properly in the gender that she identifies, and may not be treated with dignity. Medical fraternity still needs to completely understand the transgender community issues and treat them with respect and dignity, Transgender people, who are into sex work, do not practice hygienic activities. Though they insist their clients to use condoms, and protect themselves and their clients from HIV/STD, they were still prone to getting other diseases like skin diseases because of lack of hygienic practices. This is a serious health problem. Transgender need to be seriously sensitized on hygienic practices.

• Depression – Many transsexual people have a low self-esteem and self-worth because of their difficult childhood. Many of them had been driven out or flee from their homes in teens and early twenties. These people were mistreated wherever they went, wherever they choose to work. The verbal and physical abuse, the insults from people, the constant threat and danger from the rowdies and other sexual perverted men make them depressed. This is also one of the main reasons why transsexual people turn to alcohol for solace and happiness.

• Tobacco & Alcohol Abuse – Many transsexual women has been found to be using tobacco in various forms. They were addicted to tobacco because of depression, loneliness and insecurity. Consumption of alcohol is also found among many transsexual people. This is usually found among sex workers who wanted to get rid of their fears when they met their clients. Many sex workers among the transsexual community desperately need treatment to avoid tobacco and alcohol and need counseling help.

• Marriage & Adoption – Transsexual women and men should have the right to marry, adopt children and be entitled to all legal protections that non-transgender people are entitled to. Presently in India, there is no legislation to regulate transsexual people’s marriages. It is important that an amendment be introduced in marriage laws.

• Aging – Aging is a severe problem for the poor transsexual women. These senior citizens are not accepted in the Homes for the Aged. They mostly live with transgender women’s families of Jamaths. They cannot go for begging because of their age. They depend on the young people in the family for survival. Though the young transsexuals respect the seniors, they may not be able to help older transsexual women fully. Many old community members are diabetic and have high or low blood pressure.

Major findings by study

Majority (25%) of the transgender are belonging to BC and MBC caste.

 The transgender youth have a minimum (65%) educational qualification starting

from higher secondary.

 About 47.5 % of the respondents are living with their community.

 About 30% of total respondents are left with beggary and receiving alms from others and about 42.5% of the respondents are working in project and documentation work of NGO.

 Self-employment is the primary choice of transgender youth as 50 % of the total respondents are self-employed. Followed by, third sector – NGO’s are giving livelihood options as 37.5 % of the respondents are chosen NGOs as their present occupation.

 Majority (52.5%) of the total respondents are leading their life with mere less than Rs. 4000 /- per month. The 42.5% of the respondents’ families are not accepting their family member becoming a transgender because it unduly affects other members of the family in their society. About 30% of the respondents felt that they are neglected by their family as their conversation into transgender is perceived as a shame by the family and relatives.

 Majorities (52.5%) of the initial reaction of parents are expulsion from home and they are isolated from the family and the society. The parents only concerned about their child transition into transgender but not their child.

 When emotionally down in their life, the majority (60%) of the respondents are sharing their feelings predominantly with their peer group.

 In this study reveals that among the all forms of abuse reported by the respondents, verbal abuse (75%) followed by physical abuse (55%) are high compared to other forms of abuses.

 Verbal abuse is the prevalent form of abuse among Scheduled Caste (9) group followed by Other Backward Class (8)

 Majority of the respondents’ informed verbal abuse as the frequent form of abuse whereas (22) respondents mentioned that physical abuse as the second prevalent form of abuse

 Majority of the total respondents (22) experienced verbal abuse and it is higher among transgender who have been working in NGOs sector.

 About (67.5%) Transgender experience frequent perpetuation of abuses such as sexual, physical, emotional and verbal abuses from general public.

 About 40% respondents are not aware of their support system.

 The (37.5 %) of the respondents are neglected either in educational and work


 Majority (48%) of the respondents having low level of coping with emotions.

 (32) Scores of the respondents are highlighting that they have an average and low levels of coping with emotions.

 Higher frequency of respondents (8) who are working in NGOs having low level of coping with emotions whereas five persons score informed that they have average level of coping with emotions and just one person has high level of coping with emotions.

 Majority (27) of the total respondents from the both age groups i.e. 15 – 22 years and 23 – 30 years are having an average level of coping with stress.

 Irrespective of the community, more than half of the total respondents (27) are having average level of coping with stress.

 Self-employed transgender (15) are reportedly having an average level of coping with stress than other category of respondents.

 Majority (25) respondents irrespective of age, educational qualification and category of occupation, the transgender have shown average level of problem solving strategies.

 Level of cognitive restructuring is going high as the age increases as four respondents in the age group of 23 – 30 years and one respondent in the age group of 15 – 22 years are having high level of cognitive restructuring as their coping strategy

 The (5) respondents are completed higher secondary students are having comparatively higher cognitive restructuring

 Majority (10) self-employed respondents have reportedly had low cognitive restructuring whereas transgender working in NGOs found to be having high cognitive restructuring.

 Majority (21) of the total respondents reportedly having high level of expression of emotions as their dominant coping strategy.

 Eight respondents of age group 15 – 22 years and ten respondents of age group of 23 – 30 years are having an average level of social support as their coping strategy.

 The (14) respondents are having lower social support as per the educational qualification.

 The (22) respondents are having low level of social support and 18 of the respondents are having average level of social support as per the category of occupation.The (26) respondents are having high level of problem avoidance strategies in terms of age group of 15-30.

 The one third of the respondents having low level of wishful thinking and more than half of the respondents (26) are having average level of wishful thinking strategy as per the age group.

 Majority (28) of the respondents is self-employed and NGOs occupations of the respondents are having average level of self-criticism strategies.

 The 16 of the respondents of age group 23-30 are having high level of social withdrawal.

 Majority (20) of the respondents are completed higher secondary having high level of social withdrawal as coping strategies.

 The (28) of the respondents in the study area having a high level of social withdrawal by considering the self-employed, NGOs, private sector occupation and prostitution.

 Total eight coping strategies the high mean value 2.68 indicate social withdrawal factor influencing transgender youth and low mean value 1.45 indicate social support factor influencing transgender youth.


 Health care facility and mental health counseling Centre should be provided for the transgender.

 Training and awareness programmes like skill development, employability skills,vocational and life skills and personality development training should be provided to them.

 There need to be concrete measures and mechanisms to promote and protect their rights.

 Transgender should be given equal rights to express their thoughts, expression and freedom of speech in the society.

 The two percent reservation in government job should be implementing as much as possible among transgender community. Transgender students, school psychologists can implement coping strategies and make recommendations for school-wide changes to promote positive development for all students.

 More research studies should be supported in order to gain refined understanding of their psycho-social issues.

 Finally Parents should not discriminate the transgender and should take special care of them and treat them normally, so that they would be able to live in their respective families with dignity.


This is the first study which depicted the level of coping strategies of transgender which conducted in Chennai. Transgender youth are diverse and are represented across demographic variables, including their sexual orientations. They face considerable health and well-being disparities especially with coping strategies. It is important to address the challenging environments these youth face and to increase access to responsive services for transgender youth. However, they also need to be trained in coping with emotions and stress as these predominantly contribute for their mental health issues. The findings of this study suggest the need for practitioners to focus on different interventions that reduce psycho-social problems of transgender while increasing social support, employment opportunity and overall development for transgender youth. It helps them to understand their own self and motivates them to come forward in society.